We know, In Britain peaceful revolution came which drove away James II and gave the victory to Parliament (Glorious Revolution, 1688). The real fight was won by Parliament in the civil war against Charles I. It took around 450 years to develop the Parliament in England (From 1215 to 1688). The king had thus to …

We are aware of the condition of the France in the 17th and 18th century. There was acute financial and administrative crisis as we have seen in the previous post. Now we will understand somewhat about the structure of the French Society of the 18th century. French Society The natural outcome of the economic and administrative crisis …

It is said, Revolutions or volcanoes do not break out suddenly without reason or long evolution. We only see the sudden burst and are surprised. But underneath the surface of the earth, many forces play against each other for long ages and this friction between these various forces led to the sudden eruption of lava. …

The 14th July 1789 saw the fall of Bastille. It is interesting to know that one day before this incident there was a Royal feast at Versailles. King and Queen were celebrating their coming victory over rebellious Paris, which was not in their fate actually. Fall of Bastille to National Assembly The news of fall of …

France: Pillnitz Declaration The Monarchs of Europe were aware of the rising of new order in the France which was in the mood to overthrown the old order. The powers of Europe were watching these strange happenings with alarm. Louis XVI was a signatory of the Constitution. But he entered into secret negotiations with the King of Prussia. Rulers …

The reign of terror ended after the guillotine of Jacobin leader Robespierre. After his guillotine, France again became a victim of the internal crisis. A French poet, Barbier has compared France to a wild animal, a proud and free mare, with head high and shining skin; a beautiful vagabond, fiercely intolerant of saddle and harness …

Italian expedition turned Napoleon Hero of the France while Egyptian expedition prepared the ground for Napoleon to be the leader of France. Egyptian Expedition Egypt was then part of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. But this empire had declined. Then the Mamelukes ruled Egypt nominally under the Sultan of Turkey. Napoleon led this expedition to protect the …

In our last post, we have read about economic and political reforms of Napoleon. Now we will continue with some other reforms of Napoleon. Reforms of Napoleon Educational Reforms of Napoleon In the pre-modern age education and laws were the monopoly of religion. National Assembly took a revolutionary step when they snatched away education from …

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