Mughal Empire: Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur (1526-1530)

In the last post, we have discussed that the rebel uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi invited Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur in India. Daulat Khan Lodhi wanted to defeat Ibrahim Lodhi with the help of Babur. But, when babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Panipat, 1526, he decided to live in India. So, from here the era of Delhi Sultanate ended and the story of Mughal Empire started.

Mughal Empire: Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur

Battles fought by Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur
Battles fought by Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur

Battle of Panipat 1526

Babur was the fifth generation descendant of Timur from his father’s side and 15th generation descendant of Chenghiz Khan through his mother’s side. He ascended the throne of Farghana, a tiny principality in Transoxiana (Afghanistan), in 1494. He ascended the throne at the tender age of twelve.

The Indian Rajput ruler Rana Sanga and rebel Daulat Khan Lodhi invited him to get rid of the tortures of Ibrahim Lodhi. So, Babur launched four expeditions between 1519 and 1523. But on the 5th attempt, he was successful to defeat Delhi Sultanate.

Finally, on 21st April 1526, Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur fought Battle of Panipat against Ibrahim Lodhi. In this battle, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi with his extraordinary Mongolian tactic of war. The war tactic of Babur was Tulguma method. Battle of Panipat ended the era of Delhi Sultanate.

Other Battles (1527-1529)

After Battle of Panipat, Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur founded Mughal Empire in India. Until his last day, he fought many battles to consolidate his conquered empire. In 1527 CE, he fought the battle of Khanwa. So, in the Battle of Khanwa, he defeated Rana Sanga.

In 1528 CE, he fought the battle of Chanderi against Medini Rai. Medini Rai was the commander-in-chief of Rana Sanga’s army. But after the defeat of Rana Sanga in the battle of Khanwa. Medini Rai attempted to regain the prestige. But in the battle of Chanderi Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur defeated Medini Rai.

The last battle was Battle of Ghaggar. In this Battle, Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur fought against a combined army of Afghans. The Mahmud Lodhi led the Afghan army in the battle of Ghaggar. But in this battle also Babur won. So, by the time and fights, Babur consolidated his rule over the conquered region.

Actually, with the battle of Ghaggar Babur successfully established Mughal Dynasty in India. Though throughout his career in India, he was engaged in wars. But still, there were many contributions during his reign.

Babur's Empire
Babur’s Empire

Contribution: Reign of Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur

He was the first who gave the concept of sovereign Monarch. Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur took the title of Padshah or Badshah. He started Wajahdari system. It was the system of military government.

 

Babur was a great scholar in Arabic and Persian languages. The Turkish Language was his mother tongue. He wrote his autobiography Tujuk-i-Baburi in Turki language. It provides a vivid account of India.

Tomb of Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur
Tomb of Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur

He frankly confessed his own failures without suppressing any facts. He was also a naturalist and described the flora and fauna of India. Babur established a tradition of gardens with running water or Charbagh Style of Architecture. He died in 1530. He was buried in Aram Bagh near Kabul.

Humayun was the son of Babur and succeeded Babur after 1530. In the next coming post, we will read about the reign of Humayun.

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