In the last post, we have studied about the Pro-Changers and No-Changers group of Congress. The both groups did their job with full of zeal and enthusiam. These groups gave the flow to the Indian National Freedom Movement. Therefore the mid 1930s was the Golden Era of Communism in India.
In this post, we will read about the Second Phase of Revolutionary Nationalism. The following table shows the reasons for the emergence of Revolutionary Nationalism group in India.
Philosophy of Revolutionary Nationalism
The Second phase of revolutionary nationalism emphasised organisation and ideology. Example, the formation of Hindustan Republican Association. The goal was to preach and spread the philosophy of socialism in India. The socialism gives emphasis on that important means of production should come under the control of people and democratic government.
According to Karl Marx, Capitalism is the root cause of all the evils. Like, imperialism, colonialism etc. So, Karl Marx was of the opinion of that Capitalism leads to exploitation of common people and working class. Therefore, in this background, Marx appealed to the people that working class should unite. So, on the basis of their numerical strength, they should occupy political power of a nation and eliminate capitalism.
The formula of communism and socialism was evolved by Marx. But it was practically applied by Lenin. Marx and Lenin both became the inspiration for the second phase of revolutionary nationalist leaders. Bhagat Singh said.
Capitalism and Imperialism, both are my enemies.
He also emphasised communism and socialism.
Communism in India
Communism in India had its beginning with National Movement. So, it was acting as a counter for the national movement. During the time of Bhagat Singh, communism was a powerful factor and it was the reason for weakening the old methods of national movements.
Bhagat Singh and his group Hindustan Republican Association took steps against communalism. To give the message to the people they preached unity is the strength. Bhagat Singh left Sikhism on the ground that religion acting as a barrier between him and his countryman.
Although Lala Lajpat Rai was a fatherly figure for him. But still, he opposed Lalaji for the establishment of Hindu Mahasabha. In 1927, Bhagat Singh formed Punjab Naujawan Sabha with the objective to promote political awareness among youth. It was basically to fight against the communalism.
The political ideology of these comrades was complete independence through armed struggle. So, they renamed Hindustan Republican Association as Hindustan Republican Army in 1924 in Kanpur.
Important Events of the Second Phase of RN
As Bhagat Singh declared that Capitalism and Imperialism are his enemies. So, the capitalists of that era did not support this group. Labourers and farmers for whom they were fighting, did not yet understand the meaning of the word like Capitalism, Imperialism, Socialism, Communism etc.
So, without getting finance from the Capitalists it was not possible to maintain an organisation and go for revolution. So, in these circumstances, Kakori Robbery took place on 9th August 1925. After Kakori Robbery government was in a mood of suppression and took action against youth. So, this became the pain for elder leaders in India.
Lala Lajpat Rai mediated between the youth and government. So, youth promised to leave the path of violence. The evidence of this promise was that Hindustan Republican Army renamed as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
Assassination of Saunders
But in spite of this promise, this group killed Saunders. Because Lala Lajpat Rai died because of the Lathi Charge during Simon Go Back movement. So, according to Bhagat Singh, it was not the path of violence but was the step to take revenge for the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru became the victims of Saunders murder case.
In this background of the killing of Saunders, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw Bomb in assembly. The bomb was dropped with the intention to make deaf government hear on the issue of Public Safety Bill and Trade Dispute Bill.
This was the all brief of the activities during the Second Phase of Revolutionary Nationalism. In the next coming post, we shall do some evaluation of this phase of National Movement ie Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
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