Robert Clive and Dual Government (1765-1772 CE)

In the previou post, we have discussed that Battle of Plassey laid the foundation of EIC rule in India. Whereas Battle of Buxar gave strenghten to the rule of British East India Company. After the Treaty of Allahabad, British EIC got the diwani of Bihar, Bengal and Odisha.

During the same time, North India was facing threat from Afghanistan and Marathas. So, at the time when the company was consolidating Bihar, Bengal and Odisha Robert Clive wanted to use Oudh as the buffer state.

Aftermath of Battle of Buxar

Robert Clive was the master mind behind the company’s rule in India. From Nazm-ud-Daula Clive took Nizamat ie Right to administration. So, this led to the establishment of dual government in Bengal from 1765-1772 CE. In a single stroke by the treaty of Allahabad EIC became the master of Bengal.

Oudh became the dependent state of EIC and Mughal Emperor became the slave of the company. This was triple shot by a single arrow.

Robert Clive and Dual Government

Robert Clive: Strategy to encirle main Indian Provinces
Robert Clive: Strategy to encircle main Indian Provinces

EIC got Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha from Mughal Emperor. Robert Clive also took Nizamat from Nazm-ud-Daula. In this way, the entire authority of Bengal was in the hand of the company. But Clive did not remove Nazm-ud-Daula from the throne and in this way, the company had entire authority and rights.

Though the company did not have any responsibility, while Nawab had to bear with responsibility without having the hand on the treasury. This was the Dual government. Robert Clive appointed Shitab Roy as Deputy Diwan and Mohammad Raza Khan as deputy Nazim. But the entire affairs were managed through these representatives.

For 7years company did not disclose his achievement in India. For this Robert Clive gave a very sounding reason ie he wanted to consolidate his position and then expose his achievements. So, that there should not be a threat to the achievements from Indian rulers or European friends.

Society of Trade

From 1717 Dastak was the curse for Bengal Nawabs. So, in 1765, the company became the Nawab of Bengal. Now Dastak was the pain for company. Robert Clive established the society of trade in which company took monopoly in the trade of Salt, betel nut and tobacco. All the productions and import of these goods were purchased by society and then sold selected centres of retailers.

The profit of this trade was to go with the officer of the company on the graduated scale. This was the step to control the misuse of Dastak. To manage political affairs company required bureaucrats. So. this led to the establishment of Covenanted Civil Services.

Covenanted Civil Services

In 1765, the company became a political power. So now it required officers to manage its authority in Bengal. This led to the birth of Covenanted Civil Services ie officers bound by terms and condition to work only for administration. In this way, Robert Clive laid the foundation of British rule in India. This was strengthened by Warren Hastings and Cornwallis.

Robert Clive: Contributions to laid down foundation
Robert Clive: Contributions to laid down foundation

We will discuss Warren Hastings in the next coming post.

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