Till, now we have discussed the background and reasons which created the disturbances in the Russia in early 20th century. Now we will read the phases of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Phases of Russian Revolution
Phase-I of Russian Revolution: March Revolution of 1917
World War-I started in 1914 and initially, Russian army got success on different fronts. So, Tsar Nicholas-II proved that his decision of participating in the war was worthy.
But, after two years of war the Russian army tired of fighting, started losing its grace. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Russian Army, In 1916 Germany occupied western Russia. This created unemployment and food crisis in the Russia. Because western Russia was the Industrial sector of the Russia and was the source of food grains in Russia. Temperate grassland Steppes situated in the western Russia.
In this scenario, people gathered around the palace of the Tsar Nicholas-II. People were shouting for the bread and other eatables. But Tsar Nicholas-II sent the army to suppress the people. As the army was also not happy with the Tsar, army sided with the people just like the case of French Revolution.
Foolish, Tsar instead of learning from this incident sent Probansky, the Royal Imperial Bodyguards to suppress the rebels. The Royal Imperial Bodyguard too sided with the rebels. Now, Tsar was all alone with his more stupid wife, Tsarina. This was the March Revolution of 1917 in Russia.
When the Tsar became powerless the command of the Russian Army and Royal Imperial Guards came into the hands of Soviets. As we know Soviets were the group of people, who wanted political and economic reforms in Russia. Now, the Soviet was a union of different groups like peasants, labourers, soldiers etc.
Phase-II of Russian Revolution: Provisional Government
Russian Parliament Duma
As we have read in the previous post, the revolutionaries of Russian Revolution of 1905 wanted the political reforms and Tsar Nicholas-II promised to them for the formation of Duma. The Duma was the Russian Parliament. Duma saw the presence of many political parties in the 10years of its formation. These political parties were Cadets, Octobrists, Social Democrats. The Social Democrats were further divided into the Mensheviks (Liberals) and Bolsheviks (Extremists or Radicals).
Many parties with different ideologies actually led to the political deadlock type of situation. The same has happened in the Russia. The idea of Duma failed in Russia. The power centred in Russia with the Tsar only. After the March Revolution of 1917, the equations were changed. Now, the Tsar had become powerless.
Russia Under Soviet
In March Russian Revolution of 1917, Soviet became the power centre in Russia. But it lacked the art of administration, so soviet called for Duma members and formed an alliance with Duma. This led to the formation of Provisional Government in Russia. The Menshevik leader Alexander Kerensky was the important representative of this government.
This government got acceptance from the capitalists of Russia. So, gradually capitalists started influencing the decisions of the government. As the government derived from the Soviets and influenced by the capitalists, so it became difficult for this infant government to fulfil the interest of two opposite groups.
In this background, the decision of the government instead of solving the problem increased tension and trouble in Russia.
Tension in Russia after Provisional Government
The Provisional Government decided to give its support to the World War-I, which was in the interest of capitalist allies i.e. Britain, United States of America etc. So, this decision was against the interest of masses, whose basic requirement was bread and butter.
The provisional government maintained the option of the constitutional monarchy. The masses of Russia were not happy with this feature as they hated Tsar Nicholas-II and Tsarina. People instead of having stability after the establishment of provisional government, faced lots of troubles.
The government did not try for the economic reforms. The real reason was the fear of the soviet. Because economic reforms like land reforms meant snatching land from feudal lords to landless labours.
The steps of the provisional government increased tension and turmoil in the Russia. The crisis in a nation generally gives birth to a personality. Here, also the crisis in the Russia prepared the ground for the emergence of Lenin in Russia.
Phase-III of Russian Revolution: Emergence of Lenin
The above diagram represents the proposals of Lenin. Proposals of Lenin was in the interest of the Russian masses. So, with the backing of Germany Lenin returned back to Russia and this led to the November Revolution of 1917.
We will discuss November Revolution of 1917 in next coming post. Till then have a nice day.
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