Introduction to Oceanography

Oceanography is the science of seas. It is the study of dynamics and thermodynamics of existing water bodies on earth. As we know, there are five oceans on the planet earth, namely the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean and Antarctica Ocean (Southern Ocean).

The oceans cover around 71% of the total area of the earth. But the water distribution is very irregular, in Northern Hemisphere, 61% of the area is covered by water. And in Southern Hemisphere, around 81% of the area is covered by the water.

Oceanography: Science of five oceans on the earth
Oceanography: Science of five oceans

In this post, we will focus on the terminology related to the Oceanography.

Terms used in Oceanography


Sea is the subset of the ocean and so characterised by the part of the ocean where wind prevails predominantly. It can be of the following types,

  • Intercontinental Sea: the Mediterranean Sea, in between Africa and Europe Continent; the Red Sea, in between Africa and Asia; Gulf of Mexico, in between North and South America.
  • Enclosed Sea: Caspian sea, Black Sea and there are semi-enclosed sea namely Baltic Sea, Gulf of Finland etc.

Dynamics of Seawater

The waves and tides contribute to the dynamics of the seawater. Ocean currents are also the dynamics of seawater.

Salinity and Temperature

Salinity is defined as the content of dissolved salt in the oceans. Temperature defines thermodynamics of the ocean water. So, temperature varies from torrid to frigid region. So, both salinity and Temperature are the factors to give birth to the Marine Ecosystem.

Marine Ecosystem

Marine life thrives where there are suitable conditions. Tropical waters have plentiful biodiversity because of the temperature of the sea surface.

The fishing grounds like Grand Bank in North America and Dogger Bank in Europe thrives fishes. On the Grand Bank Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current meets Labrador, a cold ocean current. So, this meeting generated advection fog and this provides the best condition for the marine ecosystem.

Oceanography: Topographical Features of Ocean

Underwater Topographical features are more prominent than on land. Continental Shelf, Continental Slope, Continental rise and Abyssal Plain are some geological structure underwater. So, we shall study these in coming posts.

So, Guys, we will study all these topics in details in coming posts. And from here we will start our journey to the deep ocean in Oceanography. Till then, Goodbye, Thank you so much and Stay Connected. 😊