Indian National Congress: Extremists (1905-1919)

In the previous post, we have read about the Partition of Bengal. After Partition of Bengal, the nationalist leaders of the India got frustrated and realise that if they will keep practice petition, prayer and protest method it will not work with the Britishers.

They decided to change the method of Freedom Struggle. So, from here the Second Phase of Indian National Congress (INC) started under Extremists leaders. The eminent extremists’ leaders were LAL-BAL-PAL or Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vipin Chandra Pal.

INC Second Phase: Extremists

Philosophy and Inspiration of Extremists
Philosophy and Inspiration of Extremists


The initial demand of Moderates was good governance. But instead of fulfiling this demand Britishers tried to weaken the spirit of nationalism by the Partition of Bengal. So, this was the British adamant attitude which gave birth to the extremists in the Indian National Congress. Instead of focusing on petition, prayer and protest. Extremists started the philosophy of Boycott and Passive resistance.


Young Nationalists of India were already irritated by the British government. So, in this situation, they got enthusiasm from two important events in world history,

These two events shattered the myth of “Whiteman’s Superiority” in the world.

Inspiration of Extremists

The inspiration came from the socio-religious reformers like Swami Vivekanand, Dayanand Saraswati, Raja Ram Mohan Roy etc.

  • Swami Vivekananda said weakness is death.
  • Dayananda Saraswati coined term Swaraj or Self Rule. He also said that Swaraj is the best form of government.

All these reforms not only gave birth to a new society but also gave impetus to the nationalism in the country.


The philosophy of extremists got promotion from the masses. As we know philosophy gets the promotion because of the preaching personality. So, in the beginning of 20th-century extremists got three jewels Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vipin Chandra Pal.

All the three were a very good orator and mass mobiliser. Example,

  • Tilak started Shivaji festival and Ganesha Festival to increase mass participation.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai played a very important role to mobilise the young students of the country.

All these factors gave power to the extremists in the early 20th century. The most important contribution of the extremists to the Indian Freedom Struggle was Swadeshi Movement. In the next coming post, we shall discuss

So, in the next coming post, we shall discuss Swadeshi Movement and its impacts. Till then enjoy learning.

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