In the last post, We have read that Adolf Hitler occupied the office of President as well as Chancellor in 1934. After becoming the head of the Germany, he came out with some internal and external policies.
Internal Policies of Adolf Hitler
Unification of Germany, 1934
Germany was a federation. Under the Weimar Republic, most of the Germany was facing internal trouble. In 1934, Adolf Hitler ended the regional crisis forever. He abolished the state legislatures. So, it was an end of federal status of Germany in 1934.
Abolition of Human Rights
The abolition of the state legislature by the Adolf Hitler provoked the liberals and democrats. They opposed Adolf Hitler and stood in the favour to re-establish federal government in Germany. To control these rebels, Adolf Hitler ended the human and civil rights in Germany. He once said:
Demoralize the enemy from within by surprise, terror, sabotage, assassination. This is the war of the future.
Many people stood against the step of Adolf Hitler in which he ended human and civil rights. So, to suppress the mass he opted for Purge i.e. Purification of Political Order. According to this, all political parties except Nazi Party were banned. His rivals and opponents inside and outside of Nazi party were eliminated. So, in 1934, there was only one political party in Germany i.e. Nazi Party led by leader Adolf Hitler.
Due to the Economic Depression of 1929, German Industries were struggling for their revival. To empower German economic Adolf Hitler came out with the 4-Years Plan. The objective was to improve infrastructure and industrial sector in Germany. This led to the revival of the German industries.
Cut Down Imports
To preserve the foreign exchange reserves, Adolf Hitler asked German to cut down their imports and more rely on the indigenous market. So, the German industries provided self-reliance to the Germans. Substitutes were given preferences like synthetic fibre substituted wool, Synthetic rubber substituted natural rubber.
Execution of Jews
Jews were the prosperous community in the Germany. Seventy percent business of Germany was in the hand of Jews. Adolf Hitler has given dreams to his people of employment, luxury etc. But, directly it was not possible for him to fulfil his objective as Jews were the prominent capitalists in Germany.
So, it seemed that the main agenda in targeting the Jews was to transfer their wealth and business to the Germans. He said that,
All propaganda has to be popular and has to accommodate itself to the comprehension of the least intelligent of those whom it seeks to reach.
Adolf Hitler moulded the education as such that NAZISM became the compulsory part of the syllabus. He started interfering in the personal life of people. German women were not allowed to marry non-German men. He too emphasised on the superiority of German race.
In this way, Adolf Hitler was successful in controlling the crisis in Germany for some time. But these superficial steps did not improve the economic, social and political situation of Germany. In the roots, Germany was still weak and backwards.
External Policies of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was aware that the internal situation of Germany was not good. So, to distract the mind of masses from internal problems, he followed aggressive external policy.
Left Disarmament Conference and League of Nations
Adolf Hitler left Disarmament Agreement Conference, 1933. He gave a reason that the Disarmament was one of the provisions of Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and if European Nations would have been sincere to this, Disarmament would have started from 1919.
He left League of Nations, considering it as the puppet of European Powers like Britain and France.
Neglected Treaty of Versailles, 1919
He neglected to follow the provisions of Treaty of Versailles, 1919. Because he considered it illegal as the German delegates forcibly signed this treaty. Also, accused European powers that German delegated were not invited to attend the Paris Peace Conference, 1919.
Under the concept of Third Reich, Adolf Hitler wanted to establish a greater Germany by unifying the areas of German-speaking populations. Example: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria etc.
In 1925, British Petroleum established First Oil Industry in Iran. Though central and west Asia was the area of importance from the ancient time but after this establishment. So, Britain wanted to have proper access to this region. Whereas it seemed that Adolf Hitler wanted to create a wall between West Europe and West Asia, so he could dominate the economy and polity of this area.
So, in this background, Adolf Hitler started Policy of Aggression. In which first victim was Rhineland. Engelbert Dollfuss, the ruler of Austria died a mysterious death. So, Germany incorporated a part of Austria. From here he started another expedition to the Sudetenland, the German dominated area of Czechoslovakia.
This alarmed European powers especially Britain and France. So, the tension between Germany and European powers Britain and France led to Munich Conference of 1938.
Munich Conference, 1938
In this conference, Adolf Hitler promised to leave the policy of aggression if he was allowed to control Sudetenland. Britain and France agreed to this condition. But soon Adolf Hitler violated his promise and incorporated entire Czechoslovakia in 1939.
Finally, he kept his hand on Poland and this was the end of patience of Britain. Britain then declared the war against Germany. It was the immediate reason for the outbreak of World War-II.
Before, going into the World War-II, we will discuss Fascism in Italy. Wait for the next post. Soon, we will read Fascism and how both Nazism and Fascism played their role in World War-II????
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