In the previous post we have read abouot the Simon Commission and Nehru Report. Nehru Report did not accept by the all the parties. So, Secretary of States rejected it. So, in this situation, Gandhi reappeared on the political platform of India. Gandhi demanded dominion status and he threatened to start Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
Round Table Conference
The then Viceroy of India Lord Irwin requested Gandhi to allow Simon to finish his work in India. So, the government would organise Round Table Conference to decide the fate of Indians. So, Gandhi asked Viceroy to give the promise that Dominion Status would be the issue for the Round Table Conference. But Lord Irwin refused to give promise.
On the other side, White Paper submitted by Simon in British Parliament lacked the issue of dominion status. Therefore Gandhi and Congress boycotted first Round Table Conference in 1930. So, this led to the beginning of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Civil Disobedience Movement
Reasons for Neglecting Gandhi
Features of Civil Disobedience Movement
Irrespective of all the odds, Gandhi created cyclone in India. Because he took the people-centric causes for this movement. He took salt issue in coastal areas and local issues in non-coastal areas.
Salt was a luxury item in India until 1947. In spite of India having vast resources, Gandhi knew salt was a pain for Indians. So Salt Satyagraha became the core issue of Civil Disobedience Movement. Therefore, this movement started with Dandi March of Gandhi, which was a march from Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi.
The objective was to break the salt law by preparing salt which will be the symbol of Civil Disobedience Movement. So, it would also provide the right to the people to prepare salt. So, this created cyclone in the entire coastal area.
- TamilNadu: The march was from Tiruchirapalli to Vedrayan. The leader was Chakravartin Rajagopalachari.
- Kerala: The march was from Painor to Calicut. The leader was P.K. Madhavan.
- Bengal: The march was from Sylhet to Noakhali under the leadership of local people.
Movement in Non-Coastal Areas
Chowkidar Tax issue in Bihar. Under it, people opposed payment of salaries to the watchmen in the village. Because they were appointed by the government but people were supposed to pay them. These watchmen were actually playing the role of spies for the government.
Carlyle Circular in Assam. Under it, the government asked assurance letters from the parents that their children will not participate in anti-government activities. People of Assam opposed to signing on such kind of letters.
No tax campaign in Central Province. It was against the illegal extortion done by the Zamindars. So, in this way, Gandhi once again succeeded in pulling out the people and entire India stood up during Civil Disobedience Movement.
Tricolour Flag Hoist
Tricolour Flag respect Movement. It was one of the important aspects of Civil Disobedience Movement. Because in December 1929, Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted tricolour flag, on the banks of River Ravi in the Lahore Session of Indian National Congress. Here he gave the call for complete independence. From now onwards Tricolour Flag became the symbol of India’s Independence.
Boycott got new dimensions in Civil Disobedience Movement as for the first time it saw the participation of Business Class. This included the following provisions.
So, this again proved very costly for British Empire. Because Britain was already facing the pressure of Great Economic Depression of 1929. Gandhi adopted new modes of propaganda like,
- Prabhat Pheri.
- Marjri Sena(Gang of Small Girls)
- Vanar Sena(Gang of Small Boys)
So, Gandhi once again succeeded in giving the message to the government that he is the undisputed leader of Indian Masses.
It was brief about the Civil Disobedience Movement. In the coming next post, we shall read about the Gandhi Irwin Pact and Culmination of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Thank you so much. 🙂 Stay Connected. 🙂