In the last post, we have read that Dutch, Portuguese left India for the certain specified reasons. So, the only contenders of Indian Subcontinent were now French and Britishers. Both these European groups were extraordinary that time. So, their fate in Indian Subcontinent was decided by the Carnatic Wars of Southern India. Here, we will discuss the three Carnatic Wars of Modern India.
First Carnatic War, 1744
This war was the extension of the European war between England and French on the issue of succession in Austria. So, this war of succession in Europe had an impact on India when Dupleix (French Governor of Puducherry) beseeched the Madras. So, this was the starting of Carnatic Wars. The first war was Battle of St. Thomes, 1744.
Anwaruddin, the head of Carnatic Kingdom, on behave of English asked Dupleix to retreat. But Dupleix promised to conquer Madras and hand it over to Anwaruddin. After getting the success Dupleix refused to fulfil the promise. So, this led to the Battle of St. Thomes between Anwaruddin and Dupleix.
In this battle, a French contingent defeated the army of Anwaruddin. So, this incident increased the enthusiasm of Dupleix and also the political appetite of French Governor.
Second Carnatic War, 1749
First Anglo-Carnatic war gave confidence to Dupleix. It gave a message to Dupleix that India living in middle ages is a very easy prey for Europeans. So, Dupleix started playing the game in which the targets were Hyderabad and Carnatic Kingdoms.
Dupleix allied with the Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib. They both succeeded in defeating and killing of Anwaruddin in the Battle of Amber, 1749. Chanda Sahib got the throne of Carnatic in 1751. Nasir Jung was also killed and Dupleix was successful in putting Muzaffar Jung on the throne of Hyderabad.
In return for this contribution of Dupleix, Chanda Sahib gave 80 villages to French in Puducherry. While Muzaffar Jung gave the town of Masulipatnam, 20 lakhs rupees in cash. So, Dupleix became the honorary governor of the provinces from river Krishna to Kanyakumari.
Birth of Formula of Kingmaker
This gave birth to the first formula for the first conquest of India ie Formula of Kingmaker. Under it, Europeans interfered in the internal affairs of the Indians. They had the political and economic gain. This formula was evolved by Dupleix but successfully applied by British East India Company and Robert Clive.
Emergence of Robert Clive
Robert Clive emerged as the Hero of British East India Company. He took three steps,
- Removal of Dupleix from India.
- Arcot Episode (ended the story of Chanda Sahib).
- Conquest of Bengal in 1757.
All these developments strengthened the position of British East India Company and third Anglo-Carnatic War.
Third Carnatic War, 1760
This was the last of the Carnatic wars. This war was again the extension of seven years war in Europe. In this war, British defeated French in the Battle of Wandiwash, 1760. This was the end of the French claim on the Indian Subcontinent.
From now, British became the sole authority for Indian Subcontinent and story of Indian Subcontinent conquest, in reality, started from Bengal. We will discuss the story of Bengal province in the next coming post.
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