Aurangzeb and Decline of Mughal Empire

We have read that during the reign of Shahjahan, war of succession started. In this was, Aurangzeb defeated all his three brothers and got the throne of Mughal Empire. Though he got the throne after civil war with his own brothers. But the financial condition of Mughal Empire was not good that time. It was because of the Shahjahan, who spended a lot of treasury in making magnificent buildings.

So, Empire was facing trouble during the accession of Aurangzeb to the throne. In this situation, Aurangzeb almost reversed the policies of Akbar and created trouble for his subject. So, in a practical sense, he became the cause of the decline of Mughal Empire.

Mughal Empire from 1526-1707 CE
Mughal Empire from 1526-1707 CE

Reign of Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb was the fanatic ruler of Mughal Empire. It was not his fault rather it was his upbringing. His mentor was Miya Masoom, who always preached him in a fanatic way. So, Aurangzeb did not understand that to rule in India, he has to be a rational person. So, he came out with a Religious policy.

Religious Proclamation

In this, he gave the orders that Quranic verses will not be written on coins. He appointed Mutahids (Moral Teacher) to teach morality to Muslims. He came out with religious cum economic reforms. In which he ended history writings in his court. Also ended court music due to the financial crisis.

As all these things are prohibited by Islam, so it gave the message that Aurangzeb is doing reforms on religious grounds. So, in this way, his image became as religious ruler (bigot and fanatic). So, his rivals took advantage of his fanatic character.

Rebel Suppression

In 1669, he gave the order to destruct some temples Mathura, Varanasi (Kashi) and Ujjain. Actually, Aurangzeb never gave general order for the destruction of temples in India. But then in 1669, Mughal army entered the temple of Mathura, Somnath, Varanasi and Ujjain.

Demolition of Somnath Temple during the Reign of Aurangzeb
Demolition of Somnath Temple during the Reign of Aurangzeb

This was because Jat and Bundela rebels were hiding in these temples. So, it was an action against rebels of Mughal Empire. In Varanasi, he got annoyed by the presence of Muslims in temples for education. Aurangzeb also killed Sufi Sarmad.

Jaziyah Tax

He reimposed Jaziyah Tax. Because after 1670s Aurangzeb was facing the revolts from all the sides, like from Jats, Sikhs, Marathas, Bundelas etc. So, possibly to strengthen his strength in Muslims of India, he reimposed Jaziyah Tax. This proved to be a blunder for his. Because it strengthened his rival Chhatrapati Shivaji.

Therefore Akbar’s religious policy, which was based on the integration of all religions, was reversed by the Aurangzeb.

Rajput Policy of Aurangzeb

Aurangzeb relied on the friendship of Rajput and this was clear when he appointed Maharaja Jaisingh to handle with Shivaji in Deccan. But then he disturbed Mughal-Rajput relationship by unnecessarily interfering in affairs of Marwar and Mewar.

After the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, he declared Indersingh as the new ruler of Marwar. Actually, Indersingh was neither liked by people nor by the bureaucracy of Marwar. So, this step annoyed bureaucrats and people. So, in this scenario, Rani Hadi and Durgadas Rathore appealed to Aurangzeb to remove Indersingh and gave the throne to the minor son of Maharaja Jaswant Singh.

But, as usual in his ignorance, he rejected the appeal. Because of which Rathore stood up against Aurangzeb and this was the beginning of trouble between Marwar and Mughals. Aurangzeb instead of handling problem peacefully gave the order to Mughal army to enter into Marwar region. So, this was Mughal imperialism on Marwar.

Mewar was morally attached to the cause of Marwar which was disliked by Aurangzeb. So, on this ground, he declared war on Mewar. So, these unnecessary wars between Mughals and Rajput rulers proved disastrous for Badshah’s Empire.

Deccan Crisis

The biggest pain for Badshah Aurangzeb was the creation of Maratha Swaraj by Shivaji in 1674. In 1680, Shivaji died and Sambhaji, the son of Shivaji succeeded Shivaji. Sambhaji gave shelter to Akbar, the rebel son of Aurangzeb. So, this ended the patience of Badshah. So, he himself moved towards Deccan and in the first step, he eliminated Bijapur and Golkunda.

Finally, in 1689, he caught Sambhaji at the place called Sangrameshwara. He killed Sambhaji and then he committed the biggest mistake of fighting with Maratha population. Actually, no one can fight with the entire population. It is the simplest rule for playing chess also when King dies in the chess game, the game must be ended.

But Mughal Badshah unaware of this fact unnecessary fought with the Maratha People. Marathas were good fighters and they followed the method of Chhapamar Yuddha. In 1705, he got exhausted and bankrupt. Finally, in 1707 he died and here ends the political story of Medieval India.

So, by the start of 18th century, the foundation of Mughal Empire started shaking. Though this weak foundation gave survival to the few later kings till 1857 CE. From here started the story of Modern India. We will discuss this story in the next coming posts.

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Modern India: Conquest of India in 18th Century

In the previous post, we have studied about Aurangzeb, the last ruler of Mughal Empire. Though in the actual sense he was not the last ruler because after him we found so many incapable rulers of Mughal Empire. So, one can say that Aurangzeb was the last capable ruler of Mughal Empire.

After Aurangzeb, later Mughals were not able to consolidate the Mughal Empire. So, Mughal Empire got disintegrated in different provinces. It is very true that when there is no powerful centre, the provinces mostly become the rebel or declare themselves as the independent.

So was true in case of India of 18th Century, which gave opportunities to European powers to come and establish their base in India. From here starts the story of Modern India.

Modern India: Conquest of India

From the ancient times, India was the land of wealth and prosperity and was known as Golden Sparrow. It was all because of its natural resources, the discovery of monsoons in 47 AD by Hippalus. All these turned India as the heart of the west and east trade. Lastly, the balance of payment was always in the favour of India.

Modern India: Golden Land
Modern India: Golden Land

This wealth and prosperity of India attracted foreigners, which led to continuous invasion on India. It was a sequential invasion series from the Aryans, Shakas, Kushanas, Hunas, Turks, Mongols, Mughals, Afghanis, Iranis (Nadir Shah) and now terrorists are threatening not only India but also this whole world.

Modern India: Coming of European Powers

World Dynamics
World Dynamics

In the 16th Century, Europeans appeared as the new contender for Indian Subcontinent and story of Modern India begins from here. The story started from Crusade leading to Renaissance. The next important development was geographical discoveries. Examples:

  • 1492, Columbus discovered North America.
  • 1498, Vasco-da-Gama got the direct sea route to Indian Subcontinent via Cape of Good Hope with the help of Indian merchant Abdul Majid.

This was the beginning of the direct connection between west and east. Portuguese were good sailors, so they grab the opportunity of east expedition first. So, Portuguese took the initiation and after their success in Indian Subcontinent Dutch, English and French came to Indian Subcontinent.

Coming of New Philosophies in India

In the 16th Century, Europeans entered in India. Actually, they were under the influence of new philosophies of Capitalism and Mercantilism. Therefore from the very beginning apart from trade and commerce these European companies had the intention political conquest. Examples:

  • In 1498 CE, Portuguese entered in India and in 1510 their Governor Albuquerque occupied Goa.
  • The year 1636 CE, Portuguese made the attempt to occupy Hooghli but they failed.
  • In 1687 CE, Britishers tried to occupy Hooghli. But they also failed because of the presence of strong Mughal rulers in India like Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

In the last phase of 17th Century Europeans failed in their political ambitions. So, they became dormant and waited for the appropriate time. They got it on 13th February 1739. It was Battle of Karnal, which showed the loopholes to the Europeans.

Modern India: Battle of Karnal, 1739

It was the battle fought between Iranian General Nadir Shah and Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’. In this battle, Nadir Shah not only defeated Mughal Emperor but also humiliated him. Nadir Shah plundered India, which includes 70crores in cash, Koh-i-Noor diamond and Peacock Throne (constructed by Shahjahan).

The victory of Nadir Shah over the Mughal Emperor was a good message for the European countries. They got the message that “THE BOSS OF THE COUNTRY IS DEAD”. So, once again they stood up for political ambitions. The Carnatic Wars of southern India gave them this opportunity in 18th Century.

There were four main contenders for the Indian Subcontinent in the Modern India.

Four Contenders: Portuguese v/s Dutch v/s Britishers v/s French
Four Contenders: Portuguese v/s Dutch v/s Britishers v/s French

We will have a look on Carnatic Wars in the next coming posts.

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Carnatic Wars: French v/s Britishers

In the last post, we have read that Dutch, Portuguese left India for the certain specified reasons. So, the only contenders of Indian Subcontinent were now French and Britishers. Both these European groups were extraordinary that time. So, their fate in Indian Subcontinent was decided by the Carnatic Wars of Southern India. Here, we will discuss the three Carnatic Wars of Modern India.

Carnatic Wars

First Carnatic War, 1744

Carnatic Wars: Battle of St. Thomes, 1744
Carnatic Wars: Battle of St. Thomes, 1744

This war was the extension of the European war between England and French on the issue of succession in Austria. So, this war of succession in Europe had an impact on India when Dupleix (French Governor of Puducherry) beseeched the Madras. So, this was the starting of Carnatic Wars. The first war was Battle of St. Thomes, 1744.

Anwaruddin, the head of Carnatic Kingdom, on behave of English asked Dupleix to retreat. But Dupleix promised to conquer Madras and hand it over to Anwaruddin. After getting the success Dupleix refused to fulfil the promise. So, this led to the Battle of St. Thomes between Anwaruddin and Dupleix.

In this battle, a French contingent defeated the army of Anwaruddin. So, this incident increased the enthusiasm of Dupleix and also the political appetite of French Governor.

Second Carnatic War, 1749

Second Carnatic War, 1749
Second Carnatic War, 1749

First Anglo-Carnatic war gave confidence to Dupleix. It gave a message to Dupleix that India living in middle ages is a very easy prey for Europeans. So, Dupleix started playing the game in which the targets were Hyderabad and Carnatic Kingdoms.

Dupleix allied with the Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib. They both succeeded in defeating and killing of Anwaruddin in the Battle of Amber, 1749. Chanda Sahib got the throne of Carnatic in 1751. Nasir Jung was also killed and Dupleix was successful in putting Muzaffar Jung on the throne of Hyderabad.

In return for this contribution of Dupleix, Chanda Sahib gave 80 villages to French in Puducherry. While Muzaffar Jung gave the town of Masulipatnam, 20 lakhs rupees in cash. So, Dupleix became the honorary governor of the provinces from river Krishna to Kanyakumari.

Birth of Formula of Kingmaker

This gave birth to the first formula for the first conquest of India ie Formula of Kingmaker. Under it, Europeans interfered in the internal affairs of the Indians. They had the political and economic gain. This formula was evolved by Dupleix but successfully applied by British East India Company and Robert Clive.

Emergence of Robert Clive

Robert Clive as Governor of Bengal
Robert Clive as Governor of Bengal

Robert Clive emerged as the Hero of British East India Company. He took three steps,

  • Removal of Dupleix from India.
  • Arcot Episode (ended the story of Chanda Sahib).
  • Conquest of Bengal in 1757.

All these developments strengthened the position of British East India Company and third Anglo-Carnatic War.

Third Carnatic War, 1760

This was the last of the Carnatic wars. This war was again the extension of seven years war in Europe. In this war, British defeated French in the Battle of Wandiwash, 1760. This was the end of the French claim on the Indian Subcontinent.

From now, British became the sole authority for Indian Subcontinent and story of Indian Subcontinent conquest, in reality, started from Bengal. We will discuss the story of Bengal province in the next coming post.

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Bengal Conquest: Establishment of East India Company

In the previous post, we have read about the Carnatic Wars. Carnatic Wars concluded by the Battle of Wandiwash in 1760. These wars decided the fate of Britishers. They were now the sole authority of Indian Subcontinent. So, from here Britishers started their imperialistic movement in Indian Subcontinent. Their first prey was Bengal.

Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent

Conquest of Bengal

Bengal: Kuber of Indian Subcontinent
Bengal: Kuber of Indian Subcontinent

The first governor of Bengal province was Murshid Quli Khan (1700 CE). Bengal was the Kuber of Indian Subcontinent because this province was full of the treasury. First British factory was established in Bengal in 1651. The factory was at Hooghly. So, from 1651 to 1717 company turned into economic cum political power in Bengal because of the following developments.

East India Company

Dr Boughton Episode, 1651

In 1651, East India Company established their first factory in Hooghly. In return for the services of Dr Boughton, Shuja-ud-Din (Governor of Bengal) gave relaxation to East India Company that for the annual payment of 3000/- company can carry its trade and commerce in Bengal.

Gift of Azim-us-Shan, 1698

In 1698, pleased with the services of East India Company Azim-us-Shan gave them zamindari of three villages Govindapur, Sutnati and Kalikat. So, in this way company became Zamindar in Bengal and they got the glimpse of prosperity and wealth of Bengal.

Dastak (Farukhshiyar, 1717)

In 1717, Mughal Emperor Farukhshiyar showed his indebtedness towards Dr Franklin of East India Company. Actually, Dr Franklin cured Farukhshiyar so as a return for this he not only renewed the previous grants but also gave the gift of Dastak to East India Company.

This became a boon for East India Company but curse for Bengal Nawabs. But this Dastak helped East India Company to establish their authority over Bengal.

About Dastak

East India Company: Dastak Pass
East India Company: Dastak Pass

Dastak meant pass under it goods of the company got an exemption from transit duty. So, the misuse of Dastak became the cause of the rift between the company and Bengal Nawabs. Employees of the Company started using Dastak for their personal purpose.

So, in some cases, they gave it to their Indian friends. This was a financial loss to the treasury of Bengal and created a rift between Bengal Nawabs and Company. From 1717-1756, Bengal was under powerful Nawabs and the company was still a trader. So, Nawabs were successful in taming the company. But the situation changed with the arrival of Siraj-ud-Daula.

We will discuss the reign of Siraj-ud-Daula and his successor in the next coming post.

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Conquest of Bengal: Black Hole Tragedy

In the previous post, we have studied about the Dastak and misuse of Dastak by the officers of East India Company. Now, we know the East India Company had three establishments in India. Bombay Presidency, Madras Presidency and Bengal Presidency.

Siraj-ud-Daula

Nawab of Bengal: Siraj-ud-Daula
Nawab of Bengal: Siraj-ud-Daula

Siraj-ud-Daula was young and dynamic. But He was suffering from the disease of impatient, ill-temperament. The company was enthusiastic because of its victory in South. So, they wanted to dictate their term in Bengal. For this, they wanted to clash with Nawab and in this scenario, the company started fortification of Fort William without permission of Nawab.

This was the attack on the sovereignty of Nawab and in reaction to this Nawab attacked Fort William and occupied it. Roger Drake, governor of Fort William escaped and took shelter on an island called Fulta. Although Siraj was successful in its 1st attempt against English. But he committed following mistakes,

  • He handed over the charge of Fort William to a civilian officer Manik Chand.
  • He failed to access the character of East India Company, which was working on the principle of Capitalism and Mercantilism.

Role of Robert Clive in Bengal

The tension in Bengal alarmed Madras presidency. They immediately deputed Robert Clive to Bengal as a Governor in 1756 to handle the situation. Robert Clive took the following steps,

  • He recovered Fort William by bribing Manik Chand. He also compelled Siraj-ud-Daula for the treaty of Ali Nagar (9th February 1757).
  • Robert Clive was already enthusiastic about his achievements in South. So, the enthusiasm increased as he succeeded to take support from a number of traitors. The traitors were Mir Zafar, Rai Durlabh, Qadim Khan, Omi Chand etc.

Black Hole Tragedy

Black Hole Tragedy
Black Hole Tragedy

After strengthening his position in Fort William, Clive started conspiring against Siraj-ud-Daula. His first step was defamation of Siraj on the issue of Black Hole Tragedy.

According to British historian Holwell, Siraj after occupying Fort William imprisoned 146 people or locked in a room having small space. This led to the number of casualties. So, on this ground, Siraj was declared as a murderer.

It was possibly propaganda of East India Company. Because this is not mentioned by any contemporary historian. After this, Clive started preparing for direct war. This time British East India company attacked Chandernagore French settlement without the permission of Siraj. So, this was again the attack on the sovereignty of Nawab leading to Battle of Plassey.

We will read about the Battle of Plassey and Battle of Buxar in next coming post.

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Conquest of Bengal: Battle of Plassey,1757

We have read in the previous post that British East India Company attacked the French establishment. It was an attack on the sovereignty of the authority of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula. So, the war became a necessary solution for Nawab to get rid of the Britishers. So, at Plassey in 1757, the army of Nawab and British army fought a Battle. It was the Battle of Plassey.

Battle of Plassey

In this battle except for Mir Madan and Mir Mohan, none of the generals of Siraj-ud-Daula seriously fought. Actually, the commander-in-chief Mir Zafar became the traitor. He acted as Jackal of Robert Clive. So, he played a crucial role in the victory of British East India Company.

Battle of Plassey,1757
Battle of Plassey, 1757

Mir Zafar manipulated Siraj-ud-Daula and took him out of the Battle of Plassey field. This was a blunder done by Siraj. Because leaving the battle field by the King meant the surrender of the army. After this Nawab’s army immediately surrendered to East India Company. It was actually a war between a well trained and feudal army. Britishers were far better than the Indians in this war.

It was actually a war between a well trained and feudal army. Britishers were far better than the Indians in this war. Britishers were well equipped with the latest arms and ammunitions. Whereas the Nawab’s army was holding traditional weapons.

Role of Mir Zafar in Battle of Plassey

Mir Zafar’s son Miran escorted Siraj. Miran said to Siraj to take him to the safe destination. But later on deceived and killed him. After this battle of Plassey, East India Company appointed Mir Zafar as a Nawab of Bengal. Though the death casualties in this battle were 500 from the side of Nawab and approximately 100 from the side of the company.

Establishment of Authority of British Power
Establishment of Authority of British Power

So, on this basis Battle of Plassey was a skirmish. Plassey proved to be a turning point for Indian History. It was the beginning of Modern Era in the real sense because of the beginning of British rule in India. Mir Zafar was very helpful to East India Company as he gave all type of help. So, he also promised to cooperate and give assistance in future.

Mir Zafar proved to be Golden Bag for East India Company. So, whenever company was in need they took money from Mir Zafar. In 1760, Mir Zafar was exhausted and as he showed his helplessness to fulfil the demands of the company he got replaced by Mir Qasim in 1760.

We will read about Mir Qasim and Battle of Buxar in the next coming post.

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Monghyr Convention and Battle of Buxar

In the last post, we have read that Mir Zafar got exhausted by fulfiling the demands of East India Company. So, when Mir Zafar became useless to East India Company, officials of East India Company replaced Mir Zafar by Mir Qasim. The officials of company was expecting that Mir Qasim will work according to their instructions. But on the other side, Mir Qasim was the man of master morality. So, he himself started doing good deeds for his subjects.

Mir Qasim

Firstly, he transferred capital from Murshidabad to Monghyr. Monghyr was near to the Oudh state. After this, he went for revenue reforms. Mir Qasim increased all taxes by 2.5% and started recollection of Khajrijama (Emergency Tax).

In administrative reforms, he gave high emphasis on the law and order. All these reforms of Mir Qasim though irritated officials of East India Company. But when Mir Qasim established Canon factory in Monghyr, then it laid the foundation of conflict between East India Company and Nawab of Bengal.

Actually, instead of being a puppet Mir Qasim started behaving like an independent ruler. In the scenario, an Armenian Salt Peter merchant visited Monghyr Fort. So, this created suspicion in East India Company that Nawab is trying to purchase Salt Peter from the second party. This step irritated the officials of EIC (East India Company).

EIC Raid on Monghyr Fort

In the suspicion, Ellis, the EIC’s agent in Patna raided Monghyr Fort without the permission or informing to Nawab. This was the attack on the respect, dignity and sovereignty of Nawab. So, Mir Qasim had seen the results of the Battle of Plassey.

So, he was very much aware of the strength of the company. Mir Qasim wrote a letter to Vansittart, Governor of Fort William and requested him to control officer of the company. This led to the Monghyr Convention of 1760, between Nawab and Vansittart.

Monghyr Convention

The important decisions of the convention were,

  • Nawab will be the sole authority to decide all the dispute between the company and Nawab.
  • The EIC will pay 9% duty on its entire trade and commerce.
  • Nawab will have the right to issue Dastak.

The Monghyr Convention went in vain as Calcutta Council rejected the agreement between Nawab and Fort William Governor. Actually, the Calcutta Council was the head office of Bengal Presidency of EIC. So, in reaction to this, Mir Qasim ended Inland duties on his own people.

This step was also opposed by the Calcutta Council. So, this started clash between Bengal Nawab and EIC. And as Mir Qasim failed to control the situation, he escaped and took shelter with Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh. Here, the triple alliance was formed.

Triple Alliance

Shuja-ud-Daula had already given shelter to Mughal Emperor Shah Alam. So, this led to the formation of the triple alliance among Shuja-ud-Daula, Mir Qasim and Shah Alam. This triple alliance stood against the most rational force of the world of that time. This led to the Battle of Buxar.

Battle of Buxar, 1764

Battle of Buxar, 1764
Battle of Buxar, 1764

In this battle, the triple alliance fought with the British Army. So, they also met with the same fate met in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Battle of Plassey laid down the foundation of British rule in India. Whereas, Battle of Buxar gave the confirmation to British rule in India.

After the victory in Battle of Buxar, Calcutta Council was of the opinion to recall Robert Clive. Because he was the person, who started the story of imperialism in India. So, this led to the second term of Robert Clive in India from 1765-1767. Battle of Buxar was concluded with the Treaty of Allahabad. The signatory of this treaty was Robert Clive from the side of EIC and Shuja-ud-Daula of Oudh.

Treaty of Allahabad

Treaty of Allahabad, 1765
Treaty of Allahabad, 1765

The Treaty of Allahabad, 1765 with Shah Alam, Shuja-ud-Daula and Nazm-ud-Daula was the master stroke of Robert Clive. Because from this treaty Robert Clive took Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa (Odisha now) from Shah Alam. Shah Alam turned as a pensioner of EIC.

Shuja-ud-Daula became friend cum dependent. Because Shuja-ud-Daula accepted for the presence of Company’s forces in Oudh. Shuja-ud-Daula also promised to help the company in case of need. This was all about the aftermath of Battle of Buxar. From here, the economic exploitation of Indian people started.

In the next coming post, we will dwell in more details.

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Robert Clive and Dual Government (1765-1772 CE)

In the previou post, we have discussed that Battle of Plassey laid the foundation of EIC rule in India. Whereas Battle of Buxar gave strenghten to the rule of British East India Company. After the Treaty of Allahabad, British EIC got the diwani of Bihar, Bengal and Odisha.

During the same time, North India was facing threat from Afghanistan and Marathas. So, at the time when the company was consolidating Bihar, Bengal and Odisha Robert Clive wanted to use Oudh as the buffer state.

Aftermath of Battle of Buxar

Robert Clive was the master mind behind the company’s rule in India. From Nazm-ud-Daula Clive took Nizamat ie Right to administration. So, this led to the establishment of dual government in Bengal from 1765-1772 CE. In a single stroke by the treaty of Allahabad EIC became the master of Bengal.

Oudh became the dependent state of EIC and Mughal Emperor became the slave of the company. This was triple shot by a single arrow.

Robert Clive and Dual Government

Robert Clive: Strategy to encirle main Indian Provinces
Robert Clive: Strategy to encircle main Indian Provinces

EIC got Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha from Mughal Emperor. Robert Clive also took Nizamat from Nazm-ud-Daula. In this way, the entire authority of Bengal was in the hand of the company. But Clive did not remove Nazm-ud-Daula from the throne and in this way, the company had entire authority and rights.

Though the company did not have any responsibility, while Nawab had to bear with responsibility without having the hand on the treasury. This was the Dual government. Robert Clive appointed Shitab Roy as Deputy Diwan and Mohammad Raza Khan as deputy Nazim. But the entire affairs were managed through these representatives.

For 7years company did not disclose his achievement in India. For this Robert Clive gave a very sounding reason ie he wanted to consolidate his position and then expose his achievements. So, that there should not be a threat to the achievements from Indian rulers or European friends.

Society of Trade

From 1717 Dastak was the curse for Bengal Nawabs. So, in 1765, the company became the Nawab of Bengal. Now Dastak was the pain for company. Robert Clive established the society of trade in which company took monopoly in the trade of Salt, betel nut and tobacco. All the productions and import of these goods were purchased by society and then sold selected centres of retailers.

The profit of this trade was to go with the officer of the company on the graduated scale. This was the step to control the misuse of Dastak. To manage political affairs company required bureaucrats. So. this led to the establishment of Covenanted Civil Services.

Covenanted Civil Services

In 1765, the company became a political power. So now it required officers to manage its authority in Bengal. This led to the birth of Covenanted Civil Services ie officers bound by terms and condition to work only for administration. In this way, Robert Clive laid the foundation of British rule in India. This was strengthened by Warren Hastings and Cornwallis.

Robert Clive: Contributions to laid down foundation
Robert Clive: Contributions to laid down foundation

We will discuss Warren Hastings in the next coming post.

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